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Analysis Overview: COVID-19 Genetic Vaccine Safety in Children

“Even as experts expressed concern about a marked jump in hospitalizations — an increase more than double that among adults — doctors and researchers said they were not seeing evidence that Omicron was more threatening to children.

In fact, preliminary data suggests that compared with the Delta variant, Omicron appears to be causing milder illness in children, similar to early findings for adults.”

NY Times, “Omicron Is Not More Severe for Children, Despite Rising Hospitalizations” By Andrew Jacobs Dec. 28, 2021

The risk of death associated with COVID-19 in healthy children is virtually non-existent, as children have significant immunologic advantages relative to the older adult population (> 65 years) which comprises the high risk cohort for COVID-19 (see Omicron has Cracked Open the Overton Window , “We’re never going to learn about how safe this vaccine is unless we start giving it” , and COVID-19 Today).

The risk of death and disease in children has become even more rare with Omicron. Yet even prior to the advent of Omicron, a peer reviewed study clearly demonstrated (using safety data accumulated during past variant circulation) that the genetic COVID-19 vaccines carry a risk/benefit ratio of five deaths in the older, high risk cohort for every one life saved from COVID-19 (and those data did not account for the reporting bias inherent in US deaths due to COVID consequent to inappropriate use of PCR tests). See “Why are we vaccinating children against COVID-19?” (Toxicology Reports, Volume 8, 2021, Pages 1665-1684 ).

“Thus, our extremely conservative estimate for risk-benefit ratio is about 5/1. In plain English, people in the 65+ demographic are five times as likely to die from the inoculation as from COVID-19 under the most favorable assumptions! This demographic is the most vulnerable to adverse effects from COVID-19. As the age demographics go below about 35 years old, the chances of death from COVID-19 become very small, and when they go below 18, become negligible.”

The new variant of COVID-19, Omicron, has exploded onto the scene.  What was already an inverted risk benefit ratio for genetic vaccination in children and adults (greater risk of death from vaccine than from COVID-19) will become even more inverted since the risks of COVID-19 are further reduced with Omicron. The Omicron variant is different in five essential ways:

  • More infectious and will soon be the dominant variant in the USA
  • Less pathogenic
  • Poorly matched to currently available vaccines
  • Natural immunity is providing good protection against Omicron
  • Disease symptoms are more similar to the common cold

The issue of COVID-19 gene therapy technology -based vaccine mandates for children is a pressing issue confronting parents, grandparents, and public health officials throughout the world.  Unfortunately, the topic has become highly politicized, and active censorship by legacy media outlets has made it difficult for parents and stakeholders to obtain access to the actual data required for the full informed consent prior to acceptance of a medical procedure required by law (see for example members of the Trusted News Initiative including Thompson-Reuters).

Presented on the linked website is a large collection of information and data from both primary sources and analyses which will allow parents, grandparents, and other stakeholders to make their own determination concerning the risks and benefits of the genetic COVID-19 vaccines for their children.  This compilation of  references, primary information, and analyses represents the collective work product of hundreds of physicians and medical scientists.  It supports the consensus Physicians Declaration of the 16,000+ strong International Association of Physicians and Medical Scientists, which includes the following resolution:


Canadian Covid Care Alliance shows how…

Pfizer’s own 6 month report data on its COVID-19 inoculation shows that greater illness and death in the inoculation arm than the placebo arm. Plus, poor trial design, missing data, underpowered studies, passive surveillance and more. For the PDF of this presentation visit:

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Azir, M., Inman, B., Webb, J., & Tannenbaum, L. (2021). STEMI Mimic: Focal Myocarditis in an Adolescent Patient After mRNA COVID-19 Vaccine. J Emerg Med, 61(6), e129-e132. doi:10.1016/j.jemermed.2021.09.017.

Bozkurt, B., Kamat, I., & Hotez, P. J. (2021). Myocarditis With COVID-19 mRNA Vaccines. Circulation, 144(6), 471-484. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.121.056135.

Buchhorn, R., Meyer, C., Schulze-Forster, K., Junker, J., & Heidecke, H. (2021). Autoantibody Release in Children after Corona Virus mRNA Vaccination: A Risk Factor of Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome? Vaccines (Basel), 9(11). doi:10.3390/vaccines9111353.

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Calcaterra, G., Mehta, J. L., de Gregorio, C., Butera, G., Neroni, P., Fanos, V., & Bassareo, P. P. (2021). COVID 19 Vaccine for Adolescents. Concern about Myocarditis and Pericarditis. Pediatr Rep, 13(3), 530-533. doi:10.3390/pediatric13030061.

Chai, Q., Nygaard, U., Schmidt, R. C., Zaremba, T., Moller, A. M., & Thorvig, C. M. (2022). Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in a male adolescent after his second Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine. Acta Paediatr, 111(1), 125-127. doi:10.1111/apa.16141.

Chamling, B., Vehof, V., Drakos, S., Weil, M., Stalling, P., Vahlhaus, C., . . . Yilmaz, A. (2021). Occurrence of acute infarct-like myocarditis following COVID-19 vaccination: just an accidental co-incidence or rather vaccination-associated autoimmune myocarditis? Clin Res Cardiol, 110(11), 1850-1854. doi:10.1007/s00392-021-01916-w.

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Chang, J. C., & Hawley, H. B. (2021). Vaccine-Associated Thrombocytopenia and Thrombosis: Venous Endotheliopathy Leading to Venous Combined Micro-Macrothrombosis. Medicina (Kaunas), 57(11). doi:10.3390/medicina57111163.

Chelala, L., Jeudy, J., Hossain, R., Rosenthal, G., Pietris, N., & White, C. (2021). Cardiac MRI Findings of Myocarditis After COVID-19 mRNA Vaccination in Adolescents. AJR Am J Roentgenol. doi:10.2214/AJR.21.26853.

Choi, S., Lee, S., Seo, J. W., Kim, M. J., Jeon, Y. H., Park, J. H., . . . Yeo, N. S. (2021). Myocarditis-induced Sudden Death after BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 Vaccination in Korea: Case Report Focusing on Histopathological Findings. J Korean Med Sci, 36(40), e286. doi:10.3346/jkms.2021.36.e286.

Chouchana, L., Blet, A., Al-Khalaf, M., Kafil, T. S., Nair, G., Robblee, J., . . . Liu, P. P. (2021). Features of Inflammatory Heart Reactions Following mRNA COVID-19 Vaccination at a Global Level. Clin Pharmacol Ther. doi:10.1002/cpt.2499.

Chua, G. T., Kwan, M. Y. W., Chui, C. S. L., Smith, R. D., Cheung, E. C., Tian, T., . . . Ip, P. (2021). Epidemiology of Acute Myocarditis/Pericarditis in Hong Kong Adolescents Following Comirnaty Vaccination. Clin Infect Dis. doi:10.1093/cid/ciab989.

Clarke, R., & Ioannou, A. (2021). Should T2 mapping be used in cases of recurrent myocarditis to differentiate between the acute inflammation and chronic scar? J Pediatr. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2021.12.026.

Colaneri, M., De Filippo, M., Licari, A., Marseglia, A., Maiocchi, L., Ricciardi, A., . . . Bruno, R. (2021). COVID vaccination and asthma exacerbation: might there be a link? Int J Infect Dis, 112, 243-246. doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2021.09.026.

Das, B. B., Kohli, U., Ramachandran, P., Nguyen, H. H., Greil, G., Hussain, T., . . . Khan, D. (2021). Myopericarditis after messenger RNA Coronavirus Disease 2019 Vaccination in Adolescents 12 to 18 Years of Age. J Pediatr, 238, 26-32 e21. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2021.07.044.

Deb, A., Abdelmalek, J., Iwuji, K., & Nugent, K. (2021). Acute Myocardial Injury Following COVID-19 Vaccination: A Case Report and Review of Current Evidence from Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System Database. J Prim Care Community Health, 12, 21501327211029230. doi:10.1177/21501327211029230.

Dickey, J. B., Albert, E., Badr, M., Laraja, K. M., Sena, L. M., Gerson, D. S., . . . Aurigemma, G. P. (2021). A Series of Patients With Myocarditis Following SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination With mRNA-1279 and BNT162b2. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging, 14(9), 1862-1863. doi:10.1016/j.jcmg.2021.06.003.

Dimopoulou, D., Spyridis, N., Vartzelis, G., Tsolia, M. N., & Maritsi, D. N. (2021). Safety and tolerability of the COVID-19 mRNA-vaccine in adolescents with juvenile idiopathic arthritis on treatment with TNF-inhibitors. Arthritis Rheumatol. doi:10.1002/art.41977.

Dimopoulou, D., Vartzelis, G., Dasoula, F., Tsolia, M., & Maritsi, D. (2021). Immunogenicity of the COVID-19 mRNA vaccine in adolescents with juvenile idiopathic arthritis on treatment with TNF inhibitors. Ann Rheum Dis. doi:10.1136/annrheumdis-2021-221607.

Ehrlich, P., Klingel, K., Ohlmann-Knafo, S., Huttinger, S., Sood, N., Pickuth, D., & Kindermann, M. (2021). Biopsy-proven lymphocytic myocarditis following first mRNA COVID-19 vaccination in a 40-year-old male: case report. Clin Res Cardiol, 110(11), 1855-1859. doi:10.1007/s00392-021-01936-6.

Facetti, S., Giraldi, M., Vecchi, A. L., Rogiani, S., & Nassiacos, D. (2021). [Acute myocarditis in a young adult two days after Pfizer vaccination]. G Ital Cardiol (Rome), 22(11), 891-893. doi:10.1714/3689.36746.

Fazlollahi, A., Zahmatyar, M., Noori, M., Nejadghaderi, S. A., Sullman, M. J. M., Shekarriz-Foumani, R., . . . Safiri, S. (2021). Cardiac complications following mRNA COVID-19 vaccines: A systematic review of case reports and case series. Rev Med Virol, e2318. doi:10.1002/rmv.2318.

Foltran, D., Delmas, C., Flumian, C., De Paoli, P., Salvo, F., Gautier, S., . . . Montastruc, F. (2021). Myocarditis and Pericarditis in Adolescents after First and Second doses of mRNA COVID-19 Vaccines. Eur Heart J Qual Care Clin Outcomes. doi:10.1093/ehjqcco/qcab090.

Forgacs, D., Jang, H., Abreu, R. B., Hanley, H. B., Gattiker, J. L., Jefferson, A. M., & Ross, T. M. (2021). SARS-CoV-2 mRNA Vaccines Elicit Different Responses in Immunologically Naive and Pre-Immune Humans. Front Immunol, 12, 728021. doi:10.3389/fimmu.2021.728021.

Furer, V., Eviatar, T., Zisman, D., Peleg, H., Paran, D., Levartovsky, D., . . . Elkayam, O. (2021). Immunogenicity and safety of the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine in adult patients with autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases and in the general population: a multicentre study. Ann Rheum Dis, 80(10), 1330-1338. doi:10.1136/annrheumdis-2021-220647.

Gatti, M., Raschi, E., Moretti, U., Ardizzoni, A., Poluzzi, E., & Diemberger, I. (2021). Influenza Vaccination and Myo-Pericarditis in Patients Receiving Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors: Investigating the Likelihood of Interaction through the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System and VigiBase. Vaccines (Basel), 9(1). doi:10.3390/vaccines9010019.

Gautam, N., Saluja, P., Fudim, M., Jambhekar, K., Pandey, T., & Al’Aref, S. (2021). A Late Presentation of COVID-19 Vaccine-Induced Myocarditis. Cureus, 13(9), e17890. doi:10.7759/cureus.17890.

Gellad, W. F. (2021). Myocarditis after vaccination against covid-19. BMJ, 375, n3090. doi:10.1136/bmj.n3090.

Greenhawt, M., Abrams, E. M., Shaker, M., Chu, D. K., Khan, D., Akin, C., . . . Golden, D. B. K. (2021). The Risk of Allergic Reaction to SARS-CoV-2 Vaccines and Recommended Evaluation and Management: A Systematic Review, Meta-Analysis, GRADE Assessment, and International Consensus Approach. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract, 9(10), 3546-3567. doi:10.1016/j.jaip.2021.06.006.

Hasnie, A. A., Hasnie, U. A., Patel, N., Aziz, M. U., Xie, M., Lloyd, S. G., & Prabhu, S. D. (2021). Perimyocarditis following first dose of the mRNA-1273 SARS-CoV-2 (Moderna) vaccine in a healthy young male: a case report. BMC Cardiovasc Disord, 21(1), 375. doi:10.1186/s12872-021-02183-3.

Hause, A. M., Gee, J., Baggs, J., Abara, W. E., Marquez, P., Thompson, D., . . . Shay, D. K. (2021). COVID-19 Vaccine Safety in Adolescents Aged 12-17 Years – United States, December 14, 2020-July 16, 2021. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep, 70(31), 1053-1058. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm7031e1.

Helms, J. M., Ansteatt, K. T., Roberts, J. C., Kamatam, S., Foong, K. S., Labayog, J. S., & Tarantino, M. D. (2021). Severe, Refractory Immune Thrombocytopenia Occurring After SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine. J Blood Med, 12, 221-224. doi:10.2147/JBM.S307047.

Hippisley-Cox, J., Patone, M., Mei, X. W., Saatci, D., Dixon, S., Khunti, K., . . . Coupland, C. A. C. (2021). Risk of thrombocytopenia and thromboembolism after covid-19 vaccination and SARS-CoV-2 positive testing: self-controlled case series study. BMJ, 374, n1931. doi:10.1136/bmj.n1931.

Ho, J. S., Sia, C. H., Ngiam, J. N., Loh, P. H., Chew, N. W., Kong, W. K., & Poh, K. K. (2021). A review of COVID-19 vaccination and the reported cardiac manifestations. Singapore Med J. doi:10.11622/smedj.2021210.

Iguchi, T., Umeda, H., Kojima, M., Kanno, Y., Tanaka, Y., Kinoshita, N., & Sato, D. (2021). Cumulative Adverse Event Reporting of Anaphylaxis After mRNA COVID-19 Vaccine (Pfizer-BioNTech) Injections in Japan: The First-Month Report. Drug Saf, 44(11), 1209-1214. doi:10.1007/s40264-021-01104-9.

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Ioannou, A. (2021a). Myocarditis should be considered in those with a troponin rise and unobstructed coronary arteries following Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccination. QJM. doi:10.1093/qjmed/hcab231.

Ioannou, A. (2021b). T2 mapping should be utilised in cases of suspected myocarditis to confirm an acute inflammatory process. QJM. doi:10.1093/qjmed/hcab326.

Isaak, A., Feisst, A., & Luetkens, J. A. (2021). Myocarditis Following COVID-19 Vaccination. Radiology, 301(1), E378-E379. doi:10.1148/radiol.2021211766.

Istampoulouoglou, I., Dimitriou, G., Spani, S., Christ, A., Zimmermanns, B., Koechlin, S., . . . Leuppi-Taegtmeyer, A. B. (2021). Myocarditis and pericarditis in association with COVID-19 mRNA-vaccination: cases from a regional pharmacovigilance centre. Glob Cardiol Sci Pract, 2021(3), e202118. doi:10.21542/gcsp.2021.18.

Jain, S. S., Steele, J. M., Fonseca, B., Huang, S., Shah, S., Maskatia, S. A., . . . Grosse-Wortmann, L. (2021). COVID-19 Vaccination-Associated Myocarditis in Adolescents. Pediatrics, 148(5). doi:10.1542/peds.2021-053427.

Jhaveri, R., Adler-Shohet, F. C., Blyth, C. C., Chiotos, K., Gerber, J. S., Green, M., . . . Zaoutis, T. (2021). Weighing the Risks of Perimyocarditis With the Benefits of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA Vaccination in Adolescents. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc, 10(10), 937-939. doi:10.1093/jpids/piab061.

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Kim, H. W., Jenista, E. R., Wendell, D. C., Azevedo, C. F., Campbell, M. J., Darty, S. N., . . . Kim, R. J. (2021). Patients With Acute Myocarditis Following mRNA COVID-19 Vaccination. JAMA Cardiol, 6(10), 1196-1201. doi:10.1001/jamacardio.2021.2828.

Kim, I. C., Kim, H., Lee, H. J., Kim, J. Y., & Kim, J. Y. (2021). Cardiac Imaging of Acute Myocarditis Following COVID-19 mRNA Vaccination. J Korean Med Sci, 36(32), e229. doi:10.3346/jkms.2021.36.e229.

King, W. W., Petersen, M. R., Matar, R. M., Budweg, J. B., Cuervo Pardo, L., & Petersen, J. W. (2021). Myocarditis following mRNA vaccination against SARS-CoV-2, a case series. Am Heart J Plus, 8, 100042. doi:10.1016/j.ahjo.2021.100042.

Klein, N. P., Lewis, N., Goddard, K., Fireman, B., Zerbo, O., Hanson, K. E., . . . Weintraub, E. S. (2021). Surveillance for Adverse Events After COVID-19 mRNA Vaccination. JAMA, 326(14), 1390-1399. doi:10.1001/jama.2021.15072.

Klimek, L., Bergmann, K. C., Brehler, R., Pfutzner, W., Zuberbier, T., Hartmann, K., . . . Worm, M. (2021). Practical handling of allergic reactions to COVID-19 vaccines: A position paper from German and Austrian Allergy Societies AeDA, DGAKI, GPA and OGAI. Allergo J Int, 1-17. doi:10.1007/s40629-021-00165-7.

Klimek, L., Novak, N., Hamelmann, E., Werfel, T., Wagenmann, M., Taube, C., . . . Worm, M. (2021). Severe allergic reactions after COVID-19 vaccination with the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine in Great Britain and USA: Position statement of the German Allergy Societies: Medical Association of German Allergologists (AeDA), German Society for Allergology and Clinical Immunology (DGAKI) and Society for Pediatric Allergology and Environmental Medicine (GPA). Allergo J Int, 30(2), 51-55. doi:10.1007/s40629-020-00160-4.

Kohli, U., Desai, L., Chowdhury, D., Harahsheh, A. S., Yonts, A. B., Ansong, A., . . . Ang, J. Y. (2021). mRNA Coronavirus-19 Vaccine-Associated Myopericarditis in Adolescents: A Survey Study. J Pediatr. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2021.12.025.

Kostoff, R. N., Calina, D., Kanduc, D., Briggs, M. B., Vlachoyiannopoulos, P., Svistunov, A. A., & Tsatsakis, A. (2021a). Erratum to “Why are we vaccinating children against COVID-19?” [Toxicol. Rep. 8C (2021) 1665-1684 / 1193]. Toxicol Rep, 8, 1981. doi:10.1016/j.toxrep.2021.10.003.

Kostoff, R. N., Calina, D., Kanduc, D., Briggs, M. B., Vlachoyiannopoulos, P., Svistunov, A. A., & Tsatsakis, A. (2021b). Why are we vaccinating children against COVID-19? Toxicol Rep, 8, 1665-1684. doi:10.1016/j.toxrep.2021.08.010.

Kwan, M. Y. W., Chua, G. T., Chow, C. B., Tsao, S. S. L., To, K. K. W., Yuen, K. Y., . . . Ip, P. (2021). mRNA COVID vaccine and myocarditis in adolescents. Hong Kong Med J, 27(5), 326-327. doi:10.12809/hkmj215120.

Lee, E., Chew, N. W. S., Ng, P., & Yeo, T. J. (2021). Reply to “Letter to the editor: Myocarditis should be considered in those with a troponin rise and unobstructed coronary arteries following PfizerBioNTech COVID-19 vaccination”. QJM. doi:10.1093/qjmed/hcab232.

Lee, E. J., Cines, D. B., Gernsheimer, T., Kessler, C., Michel, M., Tarantino, M. D., . . . Bussel, J. B. (2021). Thrombocytopenia following Pfizer and Moderna SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Am J Hematol, 96(5), 534-537. doi:10.1002/ajh.26132.

Levin, D., Shimon, G., Fadlon-Derai, M., Gershovitz, L., Shovali, A., Sebbag, A., . . . Gordon, B. (2021). Myocarditis following COVID-19 vaccination – A case series. Vaccine, 39(42), 6195-6200. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2021.09.004.

Li, M., Yuan, J., Lv, G., Brown, J., Jiang, X., & Lu, Z. K. (2021). Myocarditis and Pericarditis following COVID-19 Vaccination: Inequalities in Age and Vaccine Types. J Pers Med, 11(11). doi:10.3390/jpm11111106.

Lim, Y., Kim, M. C., Kim, K. H., Jeong, I. S., Cho, Y. S., Choi, Y. D., & Lee, J. E. (2021). Case Report: Acute Fulminant Myocarditis and Cardiogenic Shock After Messenger RNA Coronavirus Disease 2019 Vaccination Requiring Extracorporeal Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation. Front Cardiovasc Med, 8, 758996. doi:10.3389/fcvm.2021.758996.

Long, S. S. (2021). Important Insights into Myopericarditis after the Pfizer mRNA COVID-19 Vaccination in Adolescents. J Pediatr, 238, 5. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2021.07.057.

Luk, A., Clarke, B., Dahdah, N., Ducharme, A., Krahn, A., McCrindle, B., . . . McDonald, M. (2021). Myocarditis and Pericarditis After COVID-19 mRNA Vaccination: Practical Considerations for Care Providers. Can J Cardiol, 37(10), 1629-1634. doi:10.1016/j.cjca.2021.08.001.

Madelon, N., Lauper, K., Breville, G., Sabater Royo, I., Goldstein, R., Andrey, D. O., . . . Eberhardt, C. S. (2021). Robust T cell responses in anti-CD20 treated patients following COVID-19 vaccination: a prospective cohort study. Clin Infect Dis. doi:10.1093/cid/ciab954.

Mangat, C., & Milosavljevic, N. (2021). BNT162b2 Vaccination during Pregnancy Protects Both the Mother and Infant: Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S Antibodies Persistently Positive in an Infant at 6 Months of Age. Case Rep Pediatr, 2021, 6901131. doi:10.1155/2021/6901131.

Mark, C., Gupta, S., Punnett, A., Upton, J., Orkin, J., Atkinson, A., . . . Alexander, S. (2021). Safety of administration of BNT162b2 mRNA (Pfizer-BioNTech) COVID-19 vaccine in youths and young adults with a history of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and allergy to PEG-asparaginase. Pediatr Blood Cancer, 68(11), e29295. doi:10.1002/pbc.29295.

McLean, K., & Johnson, T. J. (2021). Myopericarditis in a previously healthy adolescent male following COVID-19 vaccination: A case report. Acad Emerg Med, 28(8), 918-921. doi:10.1111/acem.14322.

Mevorach, D., Anis, E., Cedar, N., Bromberg, M., Haas, E. J., Nadir, E., . . . Alroy-Preis, S. (2021). Myocarditis after BNT162b2 mRNA Vaccine against Covid-19 in Israel. N Engl J Med, 385(23), 2140-2149. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2109730.

Minocha, P. K., Better, D., Singh, R. K., & Hoque, T. (2021). Recurrence of Acute Myocarditis Temporally Associated with Receipt of the mRNA Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Vaccine in a Male Adolescent. J Pediatr, 238, 321-323. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2021.06.035.

Mohamed, L., Madsen, A. M. R., Schaltz-Buchholzer, F., Ostenfeld, A., Netea, M. G., Benn, C. S., & Kofoed, P. E. (2021). Reactivation of BCG vaccination scars after vaccination with mRNA-Covid-vaccines: two case reports. BMC Infect Dis, 21(1), 1264. doi:10.1186/s12879-021-06949-0.

Montgomery, J., Ryan, M., Engler, R., Hoffman, D., McClenathan, B., Collins, L., . . . Cooper, L. T., Jr. (2021). Myocarditis Following Immunization With mRNA COVID-19 Vaccines in Members of the US Military. JAMA Cardiol, 6(10), 1202-1206. doi:10.1001/jamacardio.2021.2833.

Murakami, Y., Shinohara, M., Oka, Y., Wada, R., Noike, R., Ohara, H., . . . Ikeda, T. (2021). Myocarditis Following a COVID-19 Messenger RNA Vaccination: A Japanese Case Series. Intern Med. doi:10.2169/internalmedicine.8731-21.

Nagasaka, T., Koitabashi, N., Ishibashi, Y., Aihara, K., Takama, N., Ohyama, Y., . . . Kaneko, Y. (2021). Acute Myocarditis Associated with COVID-19 Vaccination: A Case Report. J Cardiol Cases. doi:10.1016/j.jccase.2021.11.006.

Ntouros, P. A., Vlachogiannis, N. I., Pappa, M., Nezos, A., Mavragani, C. P., Tektonidou, M. G., . . . Sfikakis, P. P. (2021). Effective DNA damage response after acute but not chronic immune challenge: SARS-CoV-2 vaccine versus Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. Clin Immunol, 229, 108765. doi:10.1016/j.clim.2021.108765.

Nygaard, U., Holm, M., Bohnstedt, C., Chai, Q., Schmidt, L. S., Hartling, U. B., . . . Stensballe, L. G. (2022). Population-based Incidence of Myopericarditis After COVID-19 Vaccination in Danish Adolescents. Pediatr Infect Dis J, 41(1), e25-e28. doi:10.1097/INF.0000000000003389.

Park, H., Yun, K. W., Kim, K. R., Song, S. H., Ahn, B., Kim, D. R., . . . Kim, Y. J. (2021). Epidemiology and Clinical Features of Myocarditis/Pericarditis before the Introduction of mRNA COVID-19 Vaccine in Korean Children: a Multicenter Study. J Korean Med Sci, 36(32), e232. doi:10.3346/jkms.2021.36.e232.

Park, J., Brekke, D. R., & Bratincsak, A. (2021). Self-limited myocarditis presenting with chest pain and ST segment elevation in adolescents after vaccination with the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine. Cardiol Young, 1-4. doi:10.1017/S1047951121002547.

Patel, Y. R., Louis, D. W., Atalay, M., Agarwal, S., & Shah, N. R. (2021). Cardiovascular magnetic resonance findings in young adult patients with acute myocarditis following mRNA COVID-19 vaccination: a case series. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson, 23(1), 101. doi:10.1186/s12968-021-00795-4.

Patone, M., Mei, X. W., Handunnetthi, L., Dixon, S., Zaccardi, F., Shankar-Hari, M., . . . Hippisley-Cox, J. (2021). Risks of myocarditis, pericarditis, and cardiac arrhythmias associated with COVID-19 vaccination or SARS-CoV-2 infection. Nat Med. doi:10.1038/s41591-021-01630-0.

Patrignani, A., Schicchi, N., Calcagnoli, F., Falchetti, E., Ciampani, N., Argalia, G., & Mariani, A. (2021). Acute myocarditis following Comirnaty vaccination in a healthy man with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. Radiol Case Rep, 16(11), 3321-3325. doi:10.1016/j.radcr.2021.07.082.

Perez, Y., Levy, E. R., Joshi, A. Y., Virk, A., Rodriguez-Porcel, M., Johnson, M., . . . Swift, M. D. (2021). Myocarditis Following COVID-19 mRNA Vaccine: A Case Series and Incidence Rate Determination. Clin Infect Dis. doi:10.1093/cid/ciab926.

Perrotta, A., Biondi-Zoccai, G., Saade, W., Miraldi, F., Morelli, A., Marullo, A. G., . . . Peruzzi, M. (2021). A snapshot global survey on side effects of COVID-19 vaccines among healthcare professionals and armed forces with a focus on headache. Panminerva Med, 63(3), 324-331. doi:10.23736/S0031-0808.21.04435-9.

Sanchez Tijmes, F., Thavendiranathan, P., Udell, J. A., Seidman, M. A., & Hanneman, K. (2021). Cardiac MRI Assessment of Nonischemic Myocardial Inflammation: State of the Art Review and Update on Myocarditis Associated with COVID-19 Vaccination. Radiol Cardiothorac Imaging, 3(6), e210252. doi:10.1148/ryct.210252.

Schauer, J., Buddhe, S., Colyer, J., Sagiv, E., Law, Y., Mallenahalli Chikkabyrappa, S., & Portman, M. A. (2021). Myopericarditis After the Pfizer Messenger Ribonucleic Acid Coronavirus Disease Vaccine in Adolescents. J Pediatr, 238, 317-320. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2021.06.083.

Schneider, J., Sottmann, L., Greinacher, A., Hagen, M., Kasper, H. U., Kuhnen, C., . . . Schmeling, A. (2021). Postmortem investigation of fatalities following vaccination with COVID-19 vaccines. Int J Legal Med, 135(6), 2335-2345. doi:10.1007/s00414-021-02706-9.

Schramm, R., Costard-Jackle, A., Rivinius, R., Fischer, B., Muller, B., Boeken, U., . . . Gummert, J. (2021). Poor humoral and T-cell response to two-dose SARS-CoV-2 messenger RNA vaccine BNT162b2 in cardiothoracic transplant recipients. Clin Res Cardiol, 110(8), 1142-1149. doi:10.1007/s00392-021-01880-5.

Sessa, F., Salerno, M., Esposito, M., Di Nunno, N., Zamboni, P., & Pomara, C. (2021). Autopsy Findings and Causality Relationship between Death and COVID-19 Vaccination: A Systematic Review. J Clin Med, 10(24). doi:10.3390/jcm10245876.

Sharif, N., Alzahrani, K. J., Ahmed, S. N., & Dey, S. K. (2021). Efficacy, Immunogenicity and Safety of COVID-19 Vaccines: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Front Immunol, 12, 714170. doi:10.3389/fimmu.2021.714170.

Shazley, O., & Alshazley, M. (2021). A COVID-Positive 52-Year-Old Man Presented With Venous Thromboembolism and Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation Following Johnson & Johnson Vaccination: A Case-Study. Cureus, 13(7), e16383. doi:10.7759/cureus.16383.

Shiyovich, A., Witberg, G., Aviv, Y., Eisen, A., Orvin, K., Wiessman, M., . . . Hamdan, A. (2021). Myocarditis following COVID-19 vaccination: magnetic resonance imaging study. Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging. doi:10.1093/ehjci/jeab230.

Simone, A., Herald, J., Chen, A., Gulati, N., Shen, A. Y., Lewin, B., & Lee, M. S. (2021). Acute Myocarditis Following COVID-19 mRNA Vaccination in Adults Aged 18 Years or Older. JAMA Intern Med, 181(12), 1668-1670. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2021.5511.

Singer, M. E., Taub, I. B., & Kaelber, D. C. (2021). Risk of Myocarditis from COVID-19 Infection in People Under Age 20: A Population-Based Analysis. medRxiv. doi:10.1101/2021.07.23.21260998.

Smith, C., Odd, D., Harwood, R., Ward, J., Linney, M., Clark, M., . . . Fraser, L. K. (2021). Deaths in children and young people in England after SARS-CoV-2 infection during the first pandemic year. Nat Med. doi:10.1038/s41591-021-01578-1.

Snapiri, O., Rosenberg Danziger, C., Shirman, N., Weissbach, A., Lowenthal, A., Ayalon, I., . . . Bilavsky, E. (2021). Transient Cardiac Injury in Adolescents Receiving the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 Vaccine. Pediatr Infect Dis J, 40(10), e360-e363. doi:10.1097/INF.0000000000003235.

Spinner, J. A., Julien, C. L., Olayinka, L., Dreyer, W. J., Bocchini, C. E., Munoz, F. M., & Devaraj, S. (2021). SARS-CoV-2 anti-spike antibodies after vaccination in pediatric heart transplantation: A first report. J Heart Lung Transplant. doi:10.1016/j.healun.2021.11.001.

Starekova, J., Bluemke, D. A., Bradham, W. S., Grist, T. M., Schiebler, M. L., & Reeder, S. B. (2021). Myocarditis Associated with mRNA COVID-19 Vaccination. Radiology, 301(2), E409-E411. doi:10.1148/radiol.2021211430.

Sulemankhil, I., Abdelrahman, M., & Negi, S. I. (2021). Temporal association between the COVID-19 Ad26.COV2.S vaccine and acute myocarditis: A case report and literature review. Cardiovasc Revasc Med. doi:10.1016/j.carrev.2021.08.012.

Tailor, P. D., Feighery, A. M., El-Sabawi, B., & Prasad, A. (2021). Case report: acute myocarditis following the second dose of mRNA-1273 SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. Eur Heart J Case Rep, 5(8), ytab319. doi:10.1093/ehjcr/ytab319.

Team, C. C.-R., Food, & Drug, A. (2021). Allergic Reactions Including Anaphylaxis After Receipt of the First Dose of Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine – United States, December 14-23, 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep, 70(2), 46-51. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm7002e1.

Tinoco, M., Leite, S., Faria, B., Cardoso, S., Von Hafe, P., Dias, G., . . . Lourenco, A. (2021). Perimyocarditis Following COVID-19 Vaccination. Clin Med Insights Cardiol, 15, 11795468211056634. doi:10.1177/11795468211056634.

Truong, D. T., Dionne, A., Muniz, J. C., McHugh, K. E., Portman, M. A., Lambert, L. M., . . . Newburger, J. W. (2021). Clinically Suspected Myocarditis Temporally Related to COVID-19 Vaccination in Adolescents and Young Adults. Circulation. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.121.056583.

Umei, T. C., Kishino, Y., Shiraishi, Y., Inohara, T., Yuasa, S., & Fukuda, K. (2021). Recurrence of myopericarditis following mRNA COVID-19 vaccination in a male adolescent. CJC Open. doi:10.1016/j.cjco.2021.12.002.

Vidula, M. K., Ambrose, M., Glassberg, H., Chokshi, N., Chen, T., Ferrari, V. A., & Han, Y. (2021). Myocarditis and Other Cardiovascular Complications of the mRNA-Based COVID-19 Vaccines. Cureus, 13(6), e15576. doi:10.7759/cureus.15576.

Visclosky, T., Theyyunni, N., Klekowski, N., & Bradin, S. (2021). Myocarditis Following mRNA COVID-19 Vaccine. Pediatr Emerg Care, 37(11), 583-584. doi:10.1097/PEC.0000000000002557.

Warren, C. M., Snow, T. T., Lee, A. S., Shah, M. M., Heider, A., Blomkalns, A., . . . Nadeau, K. C. (2021). Assessment of Allergic and Anaphylactic Reactions to mRNA COVID-19 Vaccines With Confirmatory Testing in a US Regional Health System. JAMA Netw Open, 4(9), e2125524. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.25524.

Watkins, K., Griffin, G., Septaric, K., & Simon, E. L. (2021). Myocarditis after BNT162b2 vaccination in a healthy male. Am J Emerg Med, 50, 815 e811-815 e812. doi:10.1016/j.ajem.2021.06.051.

Welsh, K. J., Baumblatt, J., Chege, W., Goud, R., & Nair, N. (2021). Thrombocytopenia including immune thrombocytopenia after receipt of mRNA COVID-19 vaccines reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS). Vaccine, 39(25), 3329-3332. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2021.04.054.

Witberg, G., Barda, N., Hoss, S., Richter, I., Wiessman, M., Aviv, Y., . . . Kornowski, R. (2021). Myocarditis after Covid-19 Vaccination in a Large Health Care Organization. N Engl J Med, 385(23), 2132-2139. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2110737.

Zimmermann, P., & Curtis, N. (2020). Why is COVID-19 less severe in children? A review of the proposed mechanisms underlying the age-related difference in severity of SARS-CoV-2 infections. Arch Dis Child. doi:10.1136/archdischild-2020-320338.

Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS) and COVID-19 Vaccination References (As GBS affects all age cohorts – references are all age cohorts)

Allen, C. M., Ramsamy, S., Tarr, A. W., Tighe, P. J., Irving, W. L., Tanasescu, R., & Evans, J. R. (2021). Guillain-Barre Syndrome Variant Occurring after SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination. Ann Neurol, 90(2), 315-318. doi:10.1002/ana.26144.

Bouattour, N., Hdiji, O., Sakka, S., Fakhfakh, E., Moalla, K., Daoud, S., . . . Mhiri, C. (2021). Guillain-Barre syndrome following the first dose of Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine: case report and review of reported cases. Neurol Sci. doi:10.1007/s10072-021-05733-x.

Censcak, D., Ungermann, L., Stetkarova, I., & Ehler, E. (2021). Guillan-Barre Syndrome after First Vaccination Dose against COVID-19: Case Report. Acta Medica (Hradec Kralove), 64(3), 183-186. doi:10.14712/18059694.2021.31.

da Silva, G. F., da Silva, C. F., Oliveira, R., Romancini, F., Mendes, R. M., Locks, A., . . . Braatz, V. L. (2021). Guillain-Barre syndrome after coronavirus disease 2019 vaccine: A temporal association. Clin Exp Neuroimmunol. doi:10.1111/cen3.12678.

Guillain-Barre Syndrome Eight Days after Vector-Based COVID-19 Vaccination. Case Rep Infect Dis, 2021, 3619131. doi:10.1155/2021/3619131.

Finsterer, J. (2021b). Guillain-Barre syndrome 15 days after COVID-19 despite SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. IDCases, 25, e01226. doi:10.1016/j.idcr.2021.e01226.

Finsterer, J. (2021d). SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations may not only be complicated by GBS but also by distal small fibre neuropathy. J Neuroimmunol, 360, 577703. doi:10.1016/j.jneuroim.2021.577703.

Finsterer, J. (2022). Neurological side effects of SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations. Acta Neurol Scand, 145(1), 5-9. doi:10.1111/ane.13550.

Finsterer, J., Scorza, F. A., & Scorza, C. A. (2021). Post SARS-CoV-2 vaccination Guillain-Barre syndrome in 19 patients. Clinics (Sao Paulo), 76, e3286. doi:10.6061/clinics/2021/e3286.

Hasan, T., Khan, M., Khan, F., & Hamza, G. (2021). Case of Guillain-Barre syndrome following COVID-19 vaccine. BMJ Case Rep, 14(6). doi:10.1136/bcr-2021-243629.

Kanabar, G., & Wilkinson, P. (2021). Guillain-Barre syndrome presenting with facial diplegia following COVID-19 vaccination in two patients. BMJ Case Rep, 14(10). doi:10.1136/bcr-2021-244527.

Koike, H., Chiba, A., & Katsuno, M. (2021). Emerging Infection, Vaccination, and Guillain-Barre Syndrome: A Review. Neurol Ther, 10(2), 523-537. doi:10.1007/s40120-021-00261-4.

Koike, H., & Katsuno, M. (2021). Emerging infectious diseases, vaccines and Guillain-Barre syndrome. Clin Exp Neuroimmunol. doi:10.1111/cen3.12644.

Kripalani, Y., Lakkappan, V., Parulekar, L., Shaikh, A., Singh, R., & Vyas, P. (2021). A Rare Case of Guillain-Barre Syndrome following COVID-19 Vaccination. Eur J Case Rep Intern Med, 8(9), 002707. doi:10.12890/2021_002797.

Leung, C. (2021). Guillain-Barre syndrome should be monitored upon mass vaccination against SARS-CoV-2. Hum Vaccin Immunother, 17(9), 2957-2958. doi:10.1080/21645515.2021.1922061.

Maramattom, B. V., Krishnan, P., Paul, R., Padmanabhan, S., Cherukudal Vishnu Nampoothiri, S., Syed, A. A., & Mangat, H. S. (2021). Guillain-Barre Syndrome following ChAdOx1-S/nCoV-19 Vaccine. Ann Neurol, 90(2), 312-314. doi:10.1002/ana.26143.

McKean, N., & Chircop, C. (2021). Guillain-Barre syndrome after COVID-19 vaccination. BMJ Case Rep, 14(7). doi:10.1136/bcr-2021-244125.

Min, Y. G., Ju, W., Ha, Y. E., Ban, J. J., Lee, S. A., Sung, J. J., & Shin, J. Y. (2021). Sensory Guillain-Barre syndrome following the ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vaccine: Report of two cases and review of literature. J Neuroimmunol, 359, 577691. doi:10.1016/j.jneuroim.2021.577691.

Mokhashi, N., Narla, G., & Marchionni, C. (2021). Guillain-Barre Syndrome in a Patient With Asymptomatic Coronavirus Disease 2019 Infection and Major Depressive Disorder. Cureus, 13(3), e14161. doi:10.7759/cureus.14161.

Morehouse, Z. P., Paulus, A., Jasti, S. A., & Bing, X. (2021). A Rare Variant of Guillain-Barre Syndrome Following Ad26.COV2.S Vaccination. Cureus, 13(9), e18153. doi:10.7759/cureus.18153.

Nasuelli, N. A., De Marchi, F., Cecchin, M., De Paoli, I., Onorato, S., Pettinaroli, R., . . . Godi, L. (2021). A case of acute demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy with bilateral facial palsy after ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine. Neurol Sci, 42(11), 4747-4749. doi:10.1007/s10072-021-05467-w.

Nishiguchi, Y., Matsuyama, H., Maeda, K., Shindo, A., & Tomimoto, H. (2021). Miller Fisher syndrome following BNT162b2 mRNA coronavirus 2019 vaccination. BMC Neurol, 21(1), 452. doi:10.1186/s12883-021-02489-x. 

Oo, W. M., Giri, P., & de Souza, A. (2021). AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine and Guillain- Barre Syndrome in Tasmania: A causal link? J Neuroimmunol, 360, 577719. doi:10.1016/j.jneuroim.2021.577719.

Prasad, A., Hurlburt, G., Podury, S., Tandon, M., Kingree, S., & Sriwastava, S. (2021). A Novel Case of Bifacial Diplegia Variant of Guillain-Barre Syndrome Following Janssen COVID-19 Vaccination. Neurol Int, 13(3), 404-409. doi:10.3390/neurolint13030040.

Razok, A., Shams, A., Almeer, A., & Zahid, M. (2021). Post-COVID-19 vaccine Guillain-Barre syndrome; first reported case from Qatar. Ann Med Surg (Lond), 67, 102540. doi:10.1016/j.amsu.2021.102540.

Rosenblum, H. G., Hadler, S. C., Moulia, D., Shimabukuro, T. T., Su, J. R., Tepper, N. K., . . . Oliver, S. E. (2021). Use of COVID-19 Vaccines After Reports of Adverse Events Among Adult Recipients of Janssen (Johnson & Johnson) and mRNA COVID-19 Vaccines (Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna): Update from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices – United States, July 2021. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep, 70(32), 1094-1099. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm7032e4.

Rossetti, A., Gheihman, G., O’Hare, M., & Kosowsky, J. M. (2021). Guillain-Barre Syndrome Presenting as Facial Diplegia after COVID-19 Vaccination: A Case Report. J Emerg Med, 61(6), e141-e145. doi:10.1016/j.jemermed.2021.07.062.

Samudralwar, R. D. (2021). Commentary: The spectrum of neurological manifestations related to COVID-19 and vaccinations. J Neuroimmunol, 358, 577660. doi:10.1016/j.jneuroim.2021.577660.

Scendoni, R., Petrelli, C., Scaloni, G., & Logullo, F. O. (2021). Electromyoneurography and laboratory findings in a case of Guillain-Barre syndrome after second dose of Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine. Hum Vaccin Immunother, 1-4. doi:10.1080/21645515.2021.1954826.

Sebghati, M., & Khalil, A. (2021). Uptake of vaccination in pregnancy. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol, 76, 53-65. doi:10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2021.03.007.

Shao, S. C., Wang, C. H., Chang, K. C., Hung, M. J., Chen, H. Y., & Liao, S. C. (2021). Guillain-Barre Syndrome Associated with COVID-19 Vaccination. Emerg Infect Dis, 27(12), 3175-3178. doi:10.3201/eid2712.211634.

Shasha, D., Bareket, R., Sikron, F. H., Gertel, O., Tsamir, J., Dvir, D., . . . Zacay, G. (2022). Real-world safety data for the Pfizer BNT162b2 SARS-CoV-2 vaccine: historical cohort study. Clin Microbiol Infect, 28(1), 130-134. doi:10.1016/j.cmi.2021.09.018.

Sriwastava, S., Shrestha, A. K., Khalid, S. H., Colantonio, M. A., Nwafor, D., & Srivastava, S. (2021). Spectrum of Neuroimaging Findings in Post-COVID-19 Vaccination: A Case Series and Review of Literature. Neurol Int, 13(4), 622-639. doi:10.3390/neurolint13040061.

Tutar, N. K., Eyigurbuz, T., Yildirim, Z., & Kale, N. (2021). A variant of Guillain-Barre syndrome after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination: AMSAN. Ideggyogy Sz, 74(7-08), 286-288. doi:10.18071/isz.74.0286.

Woo, E. J., Mba-Jonas, A., Dimova, R. B., Alimchandani, M., Zinderman, C. E., & Nair, N. (2021). Association of Receipt of the Ad26.COV2.S COVID-19 Vaccine With Presumptive Guillain-Barre Syndrome, February-July 2021. JAMA, 326(16), 1606-1613. doi:10.1001/jama.2021.16496.



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